Degree Date


Document Type

Dissertation - Public Access

Degree Name

Ed.D. Doctor of Education

Academic Discipline

Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Minor

Second Advisor

Dr. Jack Denny

Third Advisor

Dr. Christine Nelson


To address the challenges of drop-out rate and achievement gap, high schools have begun to implement intervention programs. Schools bear responsibility in addressing factors such as poor academic performance, lack of course credit, and low motivation to encourage post-secondary success. Intervention programs show promise in mitigating these factors despite variation due to lack of state or federal requirements. The most common frameworks used to address the skill gaps and deficiencies that prevent graduation are Response to Intervention (RtI) or Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of academic interventions on student achievement and self-efficacy for below average and failing high school students. Due to limited research of RtI/MTSS interventions at the secondary level, this quantitative analysis is important as it reinforced that Tier 2 interventions do have impact on standardized test measures, completion of grade-level core coursework and increase self-efficacy inventory scores for students receiving intervention. Every outcome of this study indicated a statistically significant impact on the students receiving intervention. These results are noteworthy as they can inform design of secondary intervention models.

Available for download on Monday, January 23, 2023