Degree Date


Document Type

Dissertation - Public Access

Degree Name

Psy.D. Doctor of Clinical Psychology

Academic Discipline

Clinical Psychology - Florida School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Gary Howell

Second Advisor

Dr. Patricia Dixon


The commercial sex trafficking industry is a silent epidemic that has been sweeping across nations for centuries. Within the United States, Black teen girls make up the largest demographic of commercially sexually exploited children. Despite efforts, most treatment interventions and programs have limited success in preventing or reintegrating Black teen girls into their respective communities. Even more alarming, most treatment interventions do not consider the impact of culture and other lived experiences. This critical literature review identified and evaluated effective treatment modalities and programs for Black teens and discussed key components that
have been found for community reintegration. The research questions this review answered included: What racial disparities impact human trafficking of Black teens?; How do parental style and childhood attachment serve as risk and protective factors for children’s susceptibility to domestic minor sex trafficking?; and What are current models for treating sex trafficking survivors? There is no gold standard or treatment or assessment of sex trafficking youth survivors, let alone one specifically created to address the needs of the demographic most targeted, thus, creating a need for developing a framework that encompasses the Black experience as well as community reintegration. The model created is an integrated treatment
approach called the culturally adapted multiphasic treatment program for sex trafficking survivors.