Degree Date


Document Type

Dissertation - Public Access

Degree Name

Psy.D. Doctor of Clinical Psychology

Academic Discipline

Clinical Psychology - Florida School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Sharie Fabregas

Second Advisor

Marcia Pita


Bisexuality is a sexual orientation, sometimes known as “bi,” that includes sexuality in which certain people are attracted to more than one sex and gender. Bisexuality differs from other sexual- and gender-nonconforming experiences (McInnis et al., 2022). According to Ross et al. (2018), bisexuality is frequently described as an invisible sexual orientation, and only in the last 20 years has research on biphobia and bisexuality increased (McInnis et al., 2022). Experiences unique to bisexuality include bisexual invisibility from a societal level (Dyar et al., 2015), bisexuals are more prone to experience sexual orientation instability (Bostwick et al., 2014), and bisexual people report poorer physical and mental health, and higher rates of sexual assault (Israel, 2018). Also, biphobia leads to statements that cast doubt on the validity of the bisexual identity, such as “bisexuality is a phase” (Human Rights Campaign, n.d.). This literature review’s objectives are to investigate the significance of comprehending bisexuality and biphobia, the effects of biphobia on bisexual identity, the junction of sexual identity and religious identity, and the adverse effects of biphobia on the mental health of bisexual individuals. Objectives also include discussing protective factors to improve the well-being of bisexual people. This project includes a broad review of peer-reviewed, published academic journals to provide a comprehensive and current review of the topic, resulting in the following research questions: (1) How does biphobia impact bisexual identity? (2) How does biphobia impact the intersectionality of bisexuality and religious identity? (3) How does biphobia impact mental health and other conditions for clinical attention? (4) How can understanding bisexuality and biphobia influence clinical treatment to promote protective factors and improve mental health disparities for bisexual people? Limitations, clinical implications, and recommendations for future research are examined and discussed.


I want to acknowledge my chair committee members, Dr. Fabregas and Dr. Pita, who guided me through this project. I also want to recognize all my excellent supervisors: Dr. Stambaugh, Dr. Sahgal, Dr. Wright, Dr. Christoffersen, Dr. Soltis, Dr. Velazquez, Dr. Wolfgang, and Dr. Ghuman. Last, I want to thank my mentor, Dr. Leon, and my internship cohort, Dr. Tami and Dr. Rafay. Thank you all for influencing and helping me develop the skills needed to be the best clinician I can be.