Degree Date


Document Type

Dissertation - Public Access

Degree Name

Psy.D. Doctor of Clinical Psychology

Academic Discipline

Clinical Psychology - Florida School of Professional Psychology

First Advisor

Gary Howell, PsyD

Second Advisor

Patricia Dixon, PsyD


The paper is a critical review of the literature exploring factors contributing to Black Caribbean identity development. The paper sought to understand Black Caribbeans’ migratory history, views on mental health, and factors contributing to their identity development in the United States. Migrating to the United States can be a harsh reality for many migrants because they eventually realize that their Black skin is associated with negativity. An exploration of Black Caribbeans’ history and growing up in predominately Black societies could provide some insight that contributes to some of their ideologies and beliefs regarding forms of racism and believing that hard work and educational achievement are some factors needed to succeed in the United States. Their mental health is negatively impacted the longer they reside in the United States, and everyday discrimination is one of the negative contributing factors. Many first and second-generation Black Caribbeans highlight their ethnicity in an attempt to distance themselves from native-born Blacks because of the negativity associated with being Black in America. Black Caribbeans are often mistaken for Black Americans because they share similar physical characteristics, and this paper highlights some unique factors that contribute to Black Caribbean identity. This paper proposes an identity model for Black Caribbean immigrants, which could give insight into how Black Caribbean immigrant identity develops over time in the United States of America.