Contribution to Book
Cross-linguistic research has shown that languages differ typologically in how motion events are indicated lexically and syntactically, and that speakers of these languages have different patterns of thinking for speaking (for a review, see Han and Cadierno, 2010). Spanish speakers express path linguistically on verbs, their path gestures tend to occur with path verbs, and their manner gestures may occur without manner in speech, whereas English satellite units, and their manner gestures rarely occur without manner in speech. Stam (2006b) has shown that the English narrations of Spanish learners of English have aspects of their first language (Spanish) and aspects of their second language (English) thinking for speaking patterns. She has further shown that these patterns continue to change over time. An L2 learner's thinking for speaking about path in English became more native-like, but her thinking for speaking manner did not (Stam 2010b). This paper investigates whether the learner's L2 thinking for speaking patterns continued to change from 2006 to 2011. It shows that her thinking for speaking about path and manner had continued to change, but her thinking for speaking about boundary crossings had not.
Gale Stam. "Further changes in L2 thinking for speaking?" Body - Language - Communication: An international handbook on multimodality in human interaction. Volume 2.. Ed. C. Müller, A. Cienki, E. Fricke, S. H. Ladewig, D. McNeill and S. Tessendorf. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 2014. 1875-1886.